Buffer Solution: Buffer Equation and Buffer Capacity

Buffer solution A buffer solution is a solution that resist the changes in pH values. It consists of a mixture of weak acid and its salt or a weak base and its salt. This solution is able to neutralize the effect of small amount of acid or alkali added to solution. Buffer solutions are prepared … Read more

Limit test for Heavy Metals

Limit test for Heavy Metals Principle Limit test of heavy metals is based on the reaction of metallic impurities with hydrogen sulfide in acidic medium to form brownish color solution. Metals that response to this test are lead, mercury, bismuth, arsenic, antimony, tin, cadmium, silver, copper, and molybdenum. The metallic impurities in substances are expressed … Read more

Limit Test for Chlorides, Sulphates and Iron

Introduction Limit tests are the category of impurity testing in which solution of an unknown sample is compared to a standard solution. Limit test is defined as the quantitative or semi quantitative test designed to identify and control small quantities of impurity which is likely to be present in the substance. In these tests the … Read more

Acids, Bases Theory And pH Scale

Introduction Acids and bases play crucial role in the study of inorganic chemistry. Study of acids and bases helps to understand various chemical reactions and processes. Acids are the substance that donate protons (hydrogen ions) in chemical reactions. Usually, they are sour in taste. Some examples of acids are sulfuric acid, citric acid, acetic acid, … Read more

Impurities- It’s sources, Types and Test of Purity.

Impurities Impurities in pharmaceutical substances are the unwanted chemical substances in the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) or developed during formulation or upon ageing of both API and formulation. In simple words, any component that is not a formulation ingredient is known as impurity. The presence of these impurities affects the safety and efficacy of the … Read more