Haematinics Haematinics are essential nutrients required by the bone marrow for blood cell formation (haematopoiesis). These nutrients play a crucial role in maintaining healthy red blood cells. Haematinics are used in treatment of various types of anaemia. The main haematinics include iron, folic acid, and vitamin B12. Additionally, substances like copper and pyridoxine are required … Read more


Emetics Emetics are agents that induce nausea and vomiting. They are used primarily for the emergency treatment of poisoning caused by certain toxins that have been ingested. Emetics work by stimulating the body’s natural response to expel harmful substances through vomiting. The use of emetics is limited to the treatment of poisoning with certain toxins that have … Read more


Astringents Astringents are chemical compounds that tend to shrink or constrict body tissues and form a protective layer on the surface. Due to their protein action, astringents reduce cell permeability, leading to decreased local edema, exudation, and inflammation. The word “astringent” derives from Latin adstringere, meaning “to bind fast.” These substances are usually applied topically … Read more

Antimicrobial Agents

Introduction Antimicrobial is an agent which kills microorganisms (microbicide) or stops their growth (bacteriostatic agent). Use of antimicrobials is a common practice for at least 2000 years. Ancient Egyptians and ancient Greeks used specific molds and plant extracts to treat infection. Antimicrobial is a broad terminology describing activity against microbes. There are various specific terminologies … Read more


Radiopharmaceuticals Radiopharmaceuticals are a group of pharmaceutical drugs containing radioactive isotopes. These compounds serve both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. Radiopharmaceuticals emit radiation themselves. Radiopharmacology is the specialized branch of pharmacology that deals with these agents. The primary group of radiopharmaceuticals includes radiotracers, which are used to diagnose tissue dysfunction. Radiopharmaceuticals are administered to patients via … Read more

Dental Products

Introduction Dental products typically include a variety of oral care items designed to promote dental hygiene and solves common oral health issues. Dental hygiene is also important. Clean teeth helps good health and a clean teeth cannot decay but practically it is impossible to keep ones teeth continuously clean all the years. Various factors contribute … Read more


Cathartics Cathartics are substances which promote bowl movement and help relieve constipation. They work by increasing the movement of the intestines or by softening the stool, making it easier to pass. They often used for short term relief of constipation or to prepare for certain medical procedures. In normal habits, peristalsis lead to defecation. Peristaltic … Read more

Electrolytes Used in Replacement Therapy and ORS

Introduction Electrolyte replacement therapy is a fundamental aspect of medical treatment, aiming to correct imbalances in essential ions within the body. It involves replenishing specific electrolytes to restore health and maintain homeostasis. Under the normal physiological conditions body mechanisms adjusts the electrolyte balance and no replacement is necessary. However, due to certain conditions (like pathological … Read more

Major Extracellular and Intracellular Electrolytes

Introduction Electrolytes plays an important role in maintaining physiological balance, regulating fluid balance, nerve signalling and muscle contraction in the human body. Understanding the intracellular and extracellular fluid is fundamental for maintaining overall health and preventing electrolyte imbalances which can lead to serious medical complications. In this article we will see major intracellular and extracellular … Read more