Haematinics Haematinics are essential nutrients required by the bone marrow for blood cell formation (haematopoiesis). These nutrients play a crucial role in maintaining healthy red blood cells. Haematinics are used in treatment of various types of anaemia. The main haematinics include iron, folic acid, and vitamin B12. Additionally, substances like copper and pyridoxine are required … Read more


Emetics Emetics are agents that induce nausea and vomiting. They are used primarily for the emergency treatment of poisoning caused by certain toxins that have been ingested. Emetics work by stimulating the body’s natural response to expel harmful substances through vomiting. The use of emetics is limited to the treatment of poisoning with certain toxins that have … Read more


Astringents Astringents are chemical compounds that tend to shrink or constrict body tissues and form a protective layer on the surface. Due to their protein action, astringents reduce cell permeability, leading to decreased local edema, exudation, and inflammation. The word “astringent” derives from Latin adstringere, meaning “to bind fast.” These substances are usually applied topically … Read more

Antimicrobial Agents

Introduction Antimicrobial is an agent which kills microorganisms (microbicide) or stops their growth (bacteriostatic agent). Use of antimicrobials is a common practice for at least 2000 years. Ancient Egyptians and ancient Greeks used specific molds and plant extracts to treat infection. Antimicrobial is a broad terminology describing activity against microbes. There are various specific terminologies … Read more


Radiopharmaceuticals Radiopharmaceuticals are a group of pharmaceutical drugs containing radioactive isotopes. These compounds serve both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. Radiopharmaceuticals emit radiation themselves. Radiopharmacology is the specialized branch of pharmacology that deals with these agents. The primary group of radiopharmaceuticals includes radiotracers, which are used to diagnose tissue dysfunction. Radiopharmaceuticals are administered to patients via … Read more