Haematinics are essential nutrients required by the bone marrow for blood cell formation (haematopoiesis). These nutrients play a crucial role in maintaining healthy red blood cells. Haematinics are used in treatment of various types of anaemia. The main haematinics include iron, folic acid, and vitamin B12. Additionally, substances like copper and pyridoxine are required in small quantities for blood formation.


  • Iron is vital for haemoglobin synthesis.
  • Deficiency leads to microcytic anaemia.
  • Clinical features include fatigue, shortness of breath, weakness, and reduced exercise tolerance.
  • Examination findings may include pallor, atrophic glossitis, angular cheilitis, and koilonychia (spoon-shaped nails).

Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin)

  • Essential for DNA synthesis and red blood cell maturation.
  • Deficiency causes macrocytic anaemia.
  • Clinical signs include glossitis, neuropathy, and megaloblastic changes in bone marrow.

Folate (Vitamin B9)

  • Required for DNA synthesis and cell division.
  • Deficiency leads to macrocytic anaemia similar to vitamin B12 deficiency.
  • Folate deficiency is common in alcoholics, pregnant women, and those with poor dietary intake.
Haematinics    source: wikimedia

Ferrous sulphate

Molecular formula: FeSO4.7H2O

Molecular weight: 278


It is prepared by dissolving excess of iron in dilute sulphuric acid. Solution produces effervescences, then it is filtered and cooled. Crystals are separated by filtration.

Fe + H2SO4 + 7H2O — > FeSO4.7H2O + H2


  • Pale bluish green crystalline powder
  • Sometimes transparent, green crystals
  • Odorless
  • Metallic astringent taste
  • It effloresces in air
  • Freely soluble in water
  • Insoluble in organic solvents


Assay is based on the redox titration method. It is titrated with ceric ammonium sulphate. It contains not less than 98% and not more than 105% of FeSO4.7H2O.

Ferrous gluconate

Molecular formula: C12H22O14Fe.2H2O

Molecular weight: 602


It is obtained by reacting ferrous carbonate with gluconic acid, which is obtained by fermentation of glucose. Gluconic acid is treated with ferrous carbonate and from the resulting solution ferrous gluconate crystallizes out usually as dihydride.

2C6H12O7 + FeCO3 + H2O — > Fe(C6H11O7)2.2H2O + CO2


  • Yellowish grey or pale greenish-yellowish fine powder
  • Smells like burnt sugar
  • Soluble in water
  • Insoluble in organic solvent
  • Aqueous solution is acidic in nature


Assay is based on redox titration method.


Haematinics are essential nutrients required for the formation of blood cells in the process of hematopoiesis. The main hematinic include iron, Vitamin B12, and folate. Deficiency in these nutrients can lead to anemia. In cases of hematinic deficiency, these nutrients can be administered as medicines to increase the hemoglobin content of the blood.

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