Semisolid dosage forms

Semisolid dosage forms Semisolid dosage forms are medications that are neither solid nor liquid, but somewhere in between. They are typically applied to the skin, nasal mucosa, cornea, rectal or vaginal tissue, buccal tissue, ear, or urethral membrane. Examples include ointments, pastes, creams, emulsions, gels, and rigid foams. They contain one or more active ingredients … Read more

Pharmaceutical incompatibilities

Pharmaceutical incompatibilities Pharmaceutical incompatibilities refer to situations where two or more substances are mixed or come into contact, resulting in a negative effect on the quality, stability, efficacy, or safety of one or more of the substances. Incompatibilities can occur between different drugs, drug components, excipients, or drug delivery systems. It’s important to identify and … Read more


Emulsion Emulsion is a biphasic liquid disperse system where the dispersed phase is composed of small globules of a liquid distributed throughout in an immiscible vehicle. In emulsion terminology, the dispersed phase is referred to as the discontinuous or internal phase, and the dispersion medium is the continuous or external phase. The diameter of the … Read more


Biphasic liquid dosage forms Biphasic liquid dosage forms such as suspensions and emulsions, are pharmaceutical preparations that consist of two distinct, immiscible phases. These two phases can be different according to their composition, density, and solubility. biphasic liquids are of two types, such as suspensions and emulsions, consisting two immiscible phases. In this article we … Read more

Monophasic Liquids

Monophasic liquids Monophasic liquids in pharmacy are pharmaceutical formulations that consist of a single, homogenous phase. They are typically comprised of a solvent, one or more dissolved active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), and various excipients. These liquids represent a true solution, which is a clear, homogeneous mixture prepared by dissolving a solid, liquid, or gas in … Read more

Liquid Dosage Forms

Liquid dosage forms Liquid dosage forms are pharmaceutical preparations in a liquid state that are administered orally, topically, or by injection. They contain a mixture of active drug components and non-drug components (excipients) dissolved or suspended in a suitable solvent or mixtures of solvents. They are designed to provide the maximum therapeutic response in a … Read more

Powders (BP103T)

Introduction In pharmaceutics, a powder is defined as a dry, solid substance composed of finely divided drugs, with or without excipients, intended for internal or external use. It is a solid substance in a finely divided state. Powders represent one of the oldest and most conventional dosage forms. They were originally found to be a … Read more

Pharmaceutical Calculations

Introduction Pharmaceutical calculations serve as the backbone of pharmacy practice. Which ensures precise medication dosing, compounding and preparation. From converting units of weight and volume to calculating complex solutions and formulations, pharmaceutical calculations are essential for pharmacist. There are two-unit systems of weights and measures in pharmacy, one is imperial and another is metric. In … Read more

History of Pharmacy Profession in India in Relation to Pharmacy Education

Introduction In India the pharmacy education was started in 1842 in Goa by Portuguese as a certificate course and this is the first step towards pharmacy profession in India. Formal training of the compounds was started in 1881 in Bengal. The university level program of pharmacy is started in 1937 at Banaras Hindu University. After … Read more