Adrenergic Receptors and their distribution

Introduction Adrenergic receptors are the glycoproteins present on cell surface which recognize and selectively binds to the catecholamines (norepinephrine, epinephrine, etc). These receptors are the mediators of sympathetic nervous system like smooth muscle contraction, cardiac contraction, etc. Adrenergic receptors produce its action by transducing external catecholamine stimulus into the intracellular signal. Activation or blockage of … Read more

Biosynthesis of catecholamine and Their Catabolism

Introduction Catecholamines are the neurotransmitters containing catechol ring with two hydroxyl side groups in their structure. The biosynthesis of catecholamines constitutes a fascinating and intricate processes in human body. Catecholamines including dopamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine are essential neurotransmitter involved in mood regulation, stress response and cardiovascular function. Understanding the biosynthesis of catecholamines is crucial for unravelling … Read more

Factors Affecting Drug Metabolism

Factors affecting drug metabolism Drug metabolism is the metabolic breakdown of drugs, through specialised enzymatic systems. Liver is the principal site of drug metabolism, additional sites are kidney, gut, lungs and plasma. Once the drug shows its pharmacological action, the remaining amount of drug should be excreted from body. Metabolism plays an important role in … Read more

Drug Metabolism Principles- Phase I and Phase II Reactions

Introduction The drug is eliminated irreversibly from the body by two processes, one is metabolism and other is excretion. The process of biotransformation of drugs or non-essential foreign chemicals in the body, to remove out of the body this process is referred as drug metabolism. Unabsorbed drug or non-essential chemical is made hydrophilic to remove … Read more

Medicinal Chemistry: Physicochemical Properties in Relation to Biological Action

Medicinal chemistry is a branch of chemistry which deals with synthesis, design and development of pharmaceutical drug. Medicinal chemistry combines expertise from pharmacology and chemistry. Generally medicinal chemists work to make new compounds, determine their effects, modify the structure to minimize the side effects and study the pharmacokinetics properties of the drug. In this article … Read more