Myocardial Infarction (MI)

Myocardial infarction (MI) Myocardial infarction (MI) is the irreversible heart injury occurs due to necrosis (cell death) of significant portion of myocardium (generally >1 cm). It is a medical emergency and usually termed as heart attack. If more than 50% of tissues are damaged, heart generally cannot work. If the damage is comparatively less, then … Read more

Angina pectoris (angina)

Angina pectoris (angina) Angina pectoris is a pressure like substernal chest pain occurring due to imbalance between myocardial oxygen demand and supply. Angina pectoris is considered as the primary sign of ischemic heart disease. Myocardial oxygen supply may be restricted due to obstructive atherosclerotic plaque (atherosclerosis), coronary artery spasm or non-coronary problem such as acute … Read more

Protein Engineering

Protein engineering Protein engineering is the process of developing useful or valuable proteins. It is the new branch of biotechnology which understands protein folding and recognition for design principles. It is the second generation of recombinant DNA technology. It involves altering cloned DNA in vitro by novel mutational technique so that translated proteins have slightly … Read more

Ischemic Heart Disease (IHD)

Ischemic Heart Disease (IHD) Ischemic heart disease is an acute or chronic cardiac disability caused by imbalance between the myocardial oxygen demand and supply of oxygenated blood. The term coronary artery disease is alternatively used for ischemic heart disease. Cardiac function is largely depended on continuous flow of oxygenated blood through the coronary arteries. The … Read more

Congestive Heart Failure (CHF): Pathophysiology

Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) Congestive heart failure is a long-term condition in which heart can not pump blood well enough to provide normal supply to body. Due to reduced cardiac output, body cannot perform its normal metabolic needs. The reduced supply of oxygen and nutrients may lead to inadequate tissue perfusion, vascular, cardiac and pulmonary … Read more

Basic Principles Involved in Wound Healing

Basic Principles Involved in Wound Healing Wound healing is a complex and dynamic process. Physiology of wound healing involves various phases such as hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation and maturation. A wound can occur due to various reasons. In order to understand basic principles involved in wound healing we need to understand layers of the skin first. … Read more

Inflammation: Acute Inflammation and Chronic Inflammation

Inflammation Inflammation is the complex defence response triggered due to cell injury and found in vascularized connective tissue. It eliminates the injurious agents and remove the damaged tissue components so that healing can take place. Inflammation leads to accumulation of fluids and leukocytes in extracellular tissues. Inflammation is associated with repair and healing. In this … Read more

Basic Principles of Cell Injury and Adaptation

Introduction The cell undergoes a variety of changes in response to the injury. Some injuries may lead to the cell death. Injuries stimuli triggers the cellular adaptation process. The principal targets of cell injury are cell membranes, mitochondria, protein synthesis machinery and DNA. Control of the rate of cell death to the rate of cell … Read more