Dental Products


Dental products typically include a variety of oral care items designed to promote dental hygiene and solves common oral health issues. Dental hygiene is also important. Clean teeth helps good health and a clean teeth cannot decay but practically it is impossible to keep ones teeth continuously clean all the years. Various factors contribute to dental decay and the problem of oral hygiene arises. A wide variety of inorganic compounds are used in dentistry and dental products. In this article we will see dental products including anticaries agents, cleaning agents, polishing agents and desensitizing agents.

Anticaries agents

Dental caries is a disease of tooth caused by acids formed by the action of microorganisms on carbohydrates. It is characterized by decalcification of tooth along with foul mouth odour. Dentifrices helps to prevent dental caries and to maintain clean and healthy teeth, by cleaning the accessible surface of teeth. Dentifrices contain medicated substances like ammonia, urea-ammonia containing powders, antibiotic containing mixtures and antienzyme compounds.

The main chemical used to prevent dental caries is fluoride. Administration of traces of fluoride containing salts or their use in topical use to the teeth have some encouraging results. When a fluoride containing salt or solution is taken orally, it gets radially absorbed, transported and deposited in the bone or developing teeth and remaining is excreted by kidneys. The deposited fluoride on the surface of teeth prevents the action of acids or enzymes in producing lesions. A small quantity of fluoride (1ppm) is necessary to prevent dental caries, but when more quantity of fluorides (more than 2-3 ppm) is administered, it is carried out to bones and teeth and produces mottled enamel known as dental fluorosis.

Fluoride is administered either orally or topically. Sodium fluoride solution or tablets are available in a dose of 22mg. Topically, 2% solution of fluoride is available for local application. In public water supply, fluorides are added in the quantity of 0.5 to 1 ppm quantity. Also, it can be added in packaged drinking water and fruit juices in the quantity of 1ppm.

Dental Agents
Dental Agents   source: wikimedia

Cleaning agents (dentifrices)

Dentifrices are substances used with toothbrushes to clean tooth surfaces. They physically remove plaque and debris. Cleaning agents are used to remove stains from teeth. A good cleaning agent generally has coarse to fine particle size and satisfactory abrasive property. Commonly used cleaning agents are dibasic and tribasic calcium phosphate, sodium metaphosphate, calcium carbonate and pumice, in the form of tooth pastes and tooth powders.

Polishing agents

Polishing agents are the substances used to smoothen and polish the surface of the teeth, restoration and dental appliances. They help to remove stains, plaque and measure imperfections. Common polishing agents include abrasive particle like silica, aluminum oxide and calcium carbonate in the form of paste or gel.

Desensitizing agents

Desensitizing agents reduces the sensitivity of teeth to heat and cold. Their exact mechanism is not known, but they are effective probably acting like local anesthetic. During tooth decay or in tooth ache the perception to heat and cold is minimized by desensitizing agents. For example, strontium chloride, zinc chloride.

Important compounds of dental products

Sodium fluoride

Molecular formula: NaF

Molecular weight: 42

Preparation: It can be prepared by following two methods.

In first method, Sodium fluoride can be obtained by neutralizing hydrofluoric acid with sodium carbonate.

2HF + Na2CO3 — > 2NaF + H2O + CO2

In second method, Sodium fluoride can be obtained double decomposition of calcium fluoride with sodium carbonate. Insoluble calcium carbonate precipitate is filtered out.

CaF2 + Na2CO3 — > 2NaF + CaCO3


  • Colourless and odourless
  • Crystalline or white powder
  • Soluble in water
  • Insoluble in organic solvent
  • Aqueous solution of salt corrodes ordinary glass bottle


  • Prevention of dental carries
  • Prevention of tooth decay
  • Strengthen weak enamel
  • In the treatment of osteoporosis
  • In water fluoridation


It is assayed by complexometric titration method using disodium edetate. It contains not less than 98.0% of NaF, calculated with reference to the dried substance storage.

Storage: It should be kept in well closed containers.

Stannous fluoride

Molecular formula: SnF2

Molecular weight: 157


  • White crystalline powder
  • Unpleasant, astringent-salty taste
  • Soluble in water
  • Insoluble in organic solvent


  • In the fluoride treatment of the tooth
  • Strengthen weak enamel
  • In the treatment of tooth sensitivity
  • In the treatment of gingivitis and gum inflammation
  • To prevent plaque formation

Calcium carbonate

Molecular formula: CaCO3

Molecular weight: 100.09


Commercially it is prepared by reacting sodium carbonate with calcium chloride. Then precipitate of calcium carbonate is filtered out and washed.

Na2CO3 + CaCl2 — > CaCO3 + 2NaCl


  • Fine white, microcrystalline powder
  • Odourless
  • Tasteless
  • Stable in the air
  • Insoluble in water and alcohol


  • Abrasive agent in toothpaste
  • Stabilize the pH of dental products
  • As polishing agent in toothpaste
  • Thickening agent in toothpaste and mouthwash
  • Calcium supplement in dental and bone health

Zinc eugenol cement

Molecular formula: C20H22O5Zn

Molecular weight: 421.77


Zinc eugenol cement is typically prepared by mixing zinc oxide powder with eugenol liquid. The exact proportions and mixing technique may vary depending on the specific brand or formulation


  • Good adhesive properties
  • Antimicrobial due to eugenol
  • Low solubility in oral fluids
  • Provides temporary restoration with adequate strength


  • Cementing temporary crowns and bridges
  • Cementing orthodontic bands and brackets
  • Impression material for dental impressions
  • Surgical dressing for socket preservation after tooth extraction


The quality of Zinc Eugenol cement can be assessed through several parameters:

  • Compressive Strength: Ideally, the compressive strength should fall within the range of 20-25 MPa.
  • Setting Time: The setting time should be approximately 6-7 minutes.
  • Film Thickness: The film thickness should be less than 25 microns.
  • Solubility: The solubility should be less than 2%.


Dental products play a crucial role in maintaining oral hygiene and preventing dental issues. These products include toothpaste, mouthwash, and dentifrice. Anticaries agents like sodium fluoride and stannous fluoride protect against tooth decay, while cleaning agents such as calcium carbonate physically remove plaque and debris. Desensitizing agents alleviate tooth sensitivity, and polishing agents enhance tooth appearance. Regular dental care is essential for oral health, so consult a dentist for personalized recommendations.

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