Practice MCQ For Govt Pharmacist Exam

Practice MCQ For Govt Pharmacist Exam, in this article we will solve, Practice MCQ on cellular level of organisation, a topic under Human Anatomy and Physiology first semester. Read following articles for your reference.

Structure and Function of Cell

Transport across cell membrane

Cell Division: Mitosis and Meiosis

Cell junctions

General Principles of Cell Communication


What is the basic structural and functional unit of life?

A) Organ

B) Tissue

C) Cell

D) Organ system


Which organelle is known as the “powerhouse of the cell”?

A) Nucleus

B) Endoplasmic Reticulum

C) Golgi Apparatus

D) Mitochondria


The semi-permeable membrane that surrounds the cell is known as:

A) Cell wall

B) Cell membrane

C) Cytoplasm

D) Nuclear envelope


Which of the following is a component of the cell theory?

A) Cells arise from pre-existing cells

B) All living things are made of cells

C) Cells are the smallest unit of life

D) All of the above


Ribosomes are the sites of:

A) DNA replication

B) Protein synthesis

C) Lipid metabolism

D) Photosynthesis


 Which organelle is responsible for photosynthesis in plant cells?

A) Chloroplast

B) Mitochondria

C) Ribosome

D) Lysosome


The control center of the cell that contains genetic material is called:

A) Cytoplasm

B) Mitochondria

C) Nucleus

D) Golgi Apparatus


Which of the following is NOT found in animal cells?

A) Mitochondria

B) Cell wall

C) Ribosomes

D) Lysosomes


The process of programmed cell death is known as:

A) Necrosis

B) Apoptosis

C) Mitosis

D) Cytokinesis


The endoplasmic reticulum is involved in:

A) Protein synthesis

B) Detoxification

C) Energy production

D) Both A and B


Which structure is responsible for modifying, sorting, and packaging proteins?

A) Lysosome

B) Golgi Apparatus

C) Nucleus

D) Peroxisome


Cilia and flagella are used by cells for:

A) Movement

B) Protein synthesis

C) Cell division

D) Energy production


The fluid mosaic model describes the structure of:

A) The nucleus

B) The cell membrane

C) The cytoplasm

D) The mitochondria


 Which of the following is a function of the cytoskeleton?

A) Providing structural support

B) Facilitating cell movement

C) Organizing the cell’s contents

D) All of the above


The phase of the cell cycle where the cell grows and performs its normal functions is called:

A) Mitosis

B) Interphase

C) Prophase

D) Telophase


Which type of cell lacks a nucleus?

A) Eukaryotic cell

B) Prokaryotic cell

C) Both A and B

D) Neither A nor B


 The organelle responsible for breaking down worn-out cell parts is the:

A) Ribosome

B) Lysosome

C) Mitochondria

D) Endoplasmic Reticulum


Which of the following is a lipid bilayer that forms the outer boundary of the cell?

A) Cell wall

B) Cell membrane

C) Cytoplasm

D) Extracellular matrix


 Centrioles are most closely associated with:

A) Cellular respiration

B) DNA replication

C) Cell division

D) Protein synthesis


 The jelly-like substance that fills the interior of a cell is called:

A) Plasma

B) Cytoplasm

C) Extracellular fluid

D) Nucleoplasm


Which of the following is NOT a type of transport across the cell membrane?

a) Active transport

b) Facilitated diffusion

c) Osmosis

d) Cellular respiration


The movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration without the use of cellular energy is called:

a) Active transport

b) Facilitated diffusion

c) Simple diffusion

d) Endocytosis


In facilitated diffusion, molecules move across the membrane with the help of:

a) Concentration gradients

b) Channel proteins

ATP hydrolysis

Carrier proteins


Osmosis is the diffusion of:

a) Solutes

b) Water

c) Ions

All of the above


A cell placed in a hypotonic solution will:

a) Shrink

b) Swell

c) Maintain its shape


The sodium-potassium pump is an example of:

a) Simple diffusion

b) Facilitated diffusion

c) Active transport



Which of the following molecules can freely diffuse across the phospholipid bilayer?

a) Glucose

b) Oxygen

c) Sodium ions

d) Proteins


Phagocytosis is a type of:

a) Active transport

b) Facilitated diffusion

c) Endocytosis

d) Exocytosis


Bulk movement of materials into or out of the cell in enclosed vesicles is called:

a) Active transport

b) Facilitated diffusion

c) Endocytosis

d) Exocytosis


The release of cellular products by exocytosis requires:

a) Concentration gradients

b) Channel proteins

c) ATP hydrolysis

d) Carrier proteins


The cell cycle is a series of events leading to:

a) Growth and repair

b) Cell division and growth

c) Protein synthesis only

d) Movement only


During which phase of the cell cycle does DNA replication occur?

a) Interphase (G1)

b) Interphase (S)

c) Mitosis (Metaphase)

d) Cytokinesis


Mitosis results in the formation of:

a) Two genetically identical daughter cells

b) Four genetically different daughter cells

c) A single, diploid zygote

d) Haploid gametes


In which phase of mitosis do chromosomes condense and become visible?

a) Prophase

b) Metaphase

c) Anaphase

d) Telophase


During metaphase, chromosomes line up single-file at the:

a) Nuclear envelope

b) Cell membrane

c) Midline (equator) of the cell

d) Centrosomes


Sister chromatids are held together at the centromere by proteins called:

a) Microtubules

b) Kinesins

c) Cohesins

d) Centrioles


The separation of sister chromatids during anaphase is triggered by the action of:

a) Microtubules

b) Kinesins

c) Separase enzymes

d) All of the above


Cytokinesis, the division of the cytoplasm, typically occurs:

a) Simultaneously with mitosis

b) After mitosis is complete

c) Before mitosis begins

d) Not at all, only the nucleus divides


Meiosis is a cell division process that results in the formation of:

a) Two genetically identical daughter cells

b) Four genetically different daughter cells

c) A single, diploid zygote

d) Haploid gametes


Crossing over, a source of genetic variation in meiosis, occurs during:

a) Prophase I

b) Metaphase I

c) Anaphase I

d) Telophase II


Which of the following types of cell junctions allows for direct communication between adjacent cells through cytoplasmic channels?

a) Tight junctions

b) Gap junctions

c) Desmosomes

d) Hemidesmosomes


Tight junctions primarily function to:

a) Allow rapid communication between cells

b) Anchor cells together and form a barrier

c) Connect cells to the extracellular matrix

d) Provide structural support for tissues


Desmosomes, also known as macula adherens, are found in tissues that experience:

a) High pressure

b) Fluid flow

c) Chemical exchange

d) Mechanical stress


Hemidesmosomes are specialized junctions that anchor:

a) Epithelial cells to each other

b) Epithelial cells to the basement membrane

c) Connective tissue cells to each other

d) Muscle cells to bone


Adherens junctions, including zonula adherens, are formed by interactions between:

a) Tightly packed transmembrane proteins

b) Gap junction channels

c) Intermediate filaments and cadherins

d) Integrins and extracellular matrix proteins


Which of the following statements about gap junctions is FALSE?

a) They allow for the passage of small molecules and ions.

b) They are important for coordinated tissue function.

c) They involve the fusion of cell membranes.

d) They are found in tissues like heart and nervous system.

Tight junctions are particularly abundant in the epithelium of organs like:

a) Skin

b) Muscle

c) Nervous tissue

d) Blood


The disruption of gap junctions can be linked to diseases affecting:

a) Skin barrier function

b) Muscle contraction

c) Nerve impulse transmission

d) Bone development


Mutations in genes encoding desmosomal proteins can lead to a blistering skin condition called:

a) Psoriasis

b) Eczema

c) Pemphigus vulgaris

d) Scleroderma


Research suggests that certain types of cell junctions may play a role in:

a) Regulating cell migration during development

b) Metastasis of cancer cells

c) Both a and b

d) Neither a nor b

In cell communication, a signal molecule that binds to a receptor on a target cell is called a:

a) Ligand

b) Receptor

c) Second messenger

d) Target molecule


Which of the following is NOT a type of cell signaling?

a) Paracrine signaling

b) Endocrine signaling

c) Autocrine signaling

d) Direct contact signaling


Paracrine signaling involves communication between:

a) Cells close together but not in direct contact

b) A cell and itself

c) Distant cells via the bloodstream

d) Cells connected by gap junctions


Endocrine signaling relies on:

a) Hormones released into the bloodstream

b) Local messengers acting on nearby cells

c) Direct cell-to-cell contact

d) Electrical signals


The binding of a ligand to a receptor on the cell surface often triggers a cascade of events inside the cell mediated by:

a) Second messengers

b) Gap junctions

c) Extracellular matrix proteins

d) Carrier molecules


Examples of second messengers commonly used in cell signaling include:

a) Calcium ions (Ca2+) and cyclic AMP (cAMP)

b) Glucose and amino acids

c) Water and electrolytes

d) Oxygen and carbon dioxide


G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are a major class of cell surface receptors that typically:

a) Directly activate enzymes inside the cell

b) Require a second messenger for signal transduction

c) Form ion channels that allow specific ions to pass

d) Are internalized into the cell after ligand binding


In signal transduction pathways, signal amplification refers to:

a) The weakening of the signal as it travels through the cell

b) The conversion of a weak signal into a stronger cellular response

c) The degradation of the signaling molecule after its function

d) The direct transfer of the signal to the nucleus


Phosphorylation of proteins by protein kinases is a common mechanism used in cell signaling for:

a) Altering protein activity

b) Transporting molecules across the membrane

c) Breaking down molecules for energy

d) Building new macromolecules


Disruptions in cell signaling pathways can lead to various diseases, including:

a) Cancer

b) Diabetes

c) Autoimmune disorders

d) All of the above


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