Nutritional Requirements of Bacteria

For growth and multiplication, bacteria need adequate nutrition, optimum pH, temperature and oxygen. Microorganisms have been cultivated in laboratories using appropriate artificial media that contain sources of carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen, oxygen, phosphorous, and other elements in very small quantities, such as sodium, potassium, magnesium, and iron. Bacteria can be classified depending on nutritional requirements such … Read more

Introduction to Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes

All living organisms, including microorganisms, are classified as either prokaryotes or eukaryotes. Prokaryotes and eukaryotes are distinguished by their cellular characteristics. Prokaryotic cells lack nuclei and organelles, whereas eukaryotic cells contain both. Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells share a number of characteristics. Both kinds of cells use DNA to store their genetic information and are surrounded … Read more

Ultrastructure of Bacteria and Its Morphological Classification

Introduction Bacteria are unicellular, free living, microscopic microorganisms capable of performing all the essential functions of life. Bacteria possess both deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA). Bacteria are prokaryotic microorganisms that do not contain chlorophyll. They found in water, soil, air, food and all natural environments. In this article we will see the ultrastructure … Read more

Medicinal Chemistry: Physicochemical Properties in Relation to Biological Action

Medicinal chemistry is a branch of chemistry which deals with synthesis, design and development of pharmaceutical drug. Medicinal chemistry combines expertise from pharmacology and chemistry. Generally medicinal chemists work to make new compounds, determine their effects, modify the structure to minimize the side effects and study the pharmacokinetics properties of the drug. In this article … Read more

Flow Properties of Powders

Introduction The basic and initial requirement in pharmaceutical manufacturing industry is the powder. Flow properties of powders affects many common manufacturing problems. Flow properties of powders are basically mechanical property. Powders may be free flowing or sticky. In this article we will see powder characteristics, factors affecting flow properties of powder, methods to determine flow … Read more

Preformulation: Solubility Profile of Drugs

Introduction The maximum amount of solute dissolved in unit amount of solvent in certain conditions of temperature and pH called as solubility. To enter into systemic circulation, the drug is needed to go into the solution form. Solubility profile plays an important role in preformulation study to design a suitable method for obtaining a solution … Read more

Pharmacognosy: Drug Adulteration and Drug Evaluation

Introduction The therapeutic potential of drugs obtained from natural sources has been recognised by humans for centuries. A rich history of traditional system of medicines gives in-depth knowledge about therapeutic uses of drugs of natural origin. Now a days also drugs of natural origin is popular because of minimum side effects compared to modern system … Read more

Pharmacognosy- Classification of Drugs

Introduction There are thousands of plant species used as medicine. The drugs used in Indian traditional systems of medicines are 90% based on plant sources. These drugs are considered to be safe, cost effective and having minimal side effects.  To study the individual drug, from variety of drugs sources and their uses, one must use … Read more

Organized and Unorganized Crude Drugs

Introduction The chemical substances from natural origin, either used directly or indirectly without modifying its chemical composition is called as crude drugs. Crude drugs mainly categorize in two main categories one is organised crude drugs and other is unorganised crude drugs. Organised crude drugs are the direct organs of the plant or animals for example, … Read more

Pharmacognosy: History, Development, Scope and Sources of Crude Drugs

Introduction Pharmacognosy word is derived from two Greek words, pharmakon means drugs and gignosco means to acquire knowledge of something. The term pharmacognosy is first termed by German scientist Seydler (1815), in his work “Analacta Pharmacognistica”. Pharmacognosy is the systemic study of crude drugs obtained from natural origin like plant, animal and minerals. Pharmacognosy is … Read more