Cathartics Cathartics are substances which promote bowl movement and help relieve constipation. They work by increasing the movement of the intestines or by softening the stool, making it easier to pass. They often used for short term relief of constipation or to prepare for certain medical procedures. In normal habits, peristalsis lead to defecation. Peristaltic … Read more

Electrolytes Used in Replacement Therapy and ORS

Introduction Electrolyte replacement therapy is a fundamental aspect of medical treatment, aiming to correct imbalances in essential ions within the body. It involves replenishing specific electrolytes to restore health and maintain homeostasis. Under the normal physiological conditions body mechanisms adjusts the electrolyte balance and no replacement is necessary. However, due to certain conditions (like pathological … Read more

Major Extracellular and Intracellular Electrolytes

Introduction Electrolytes plays an important role in maintaining physiological balance, regulating fluid balance, nerve signalling and muscle contraction in the human body. Understanding the intracellular and extracellular fluid is fundamental for maintaining overall health and preventing electrolyte imbalances which can lead to serious medical complications. In this article we will see major intracellular and extracellular … Read more

Gastrointestinal Agents: Antacids

Antacids Antacids are substances that neutralize stomach acidity, providing relief from symptoms like heartburn and indigestion. They work by chemically counteracting excess acid produced by the stomach. Commonly taken orally, antacids are used for conditions such as ulcers, acid reflux, and occasional indigestion. While generally safe, they do not address underlying causes. Use of antacids … Read more

Gastrointestinal Agents: Acidifying Agents

Introduction Gastrointestinal agents are the medications or substances used to treat gastrointestinal disorder. They include acidifying agents, antacids, antiemetics, laxatives, antidiarrheal and drugs for gastrointestinal motility disorders. These agents are used to treat certain conditions like achlorhydria, acidity, ulcers, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation and certain other gastrointestinal issues. In this article we will see acidifying … Read more

Myocardial Infarction (MI)

Myocardial infarction (MI) Myocardial infarction (MI) is the irreversible heart injury occurs due to necrosis (cell death) of significant portion of myocardium (generally >1 cm). It is a medical emergency and usually termed as heart attack. If more than 50% of tissues are damaged, heart generally cannot work. If the damage is comparatively less, then … Read more

Dosage Forms: Classification and Definitions

Introduction Most of the drugs cannot be administered directly in pure chemical form, they need to be change in appropriate dosage forms to administer to the patients. After converting them into a specific dose formulation, they are given to the patients in various dosage form through various routes of administration. Medicines reach the site of … Read more

Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs)- Inorganic Chemistry Unit I- BP104T

In this article we will see some Multiple-Choice Questions (MCQs) based on Inorganic chemistry Unit I (BP104T). What are the sources of impurities? Starting materials and intermediates Products of over reaction Products of side reactions Only 1 and 2 All of the above What are the types of impurities? Organic impurities Inorganic impurities Residual solvents … Read more

Angina pectoris (angina)

Angina pectoris (angina) Angina pectoris is a pressure like substernal chest pain occurring due to imbalance between myocardial oxygen demand and supply. Angina pectoris is considered as the primary sign of ischemic heart disease. Myocardial oxygen supply may be restricted due to obstructive atherosclerotic plaque (atherosclerosis), coronary artery spasm or non-coronary problem such as acute … Read more

Distribution of Drugs

Distribution of drugs Distribution in pharmacokinetics refers to the reversible movement of a medication from one part of the body to another. A medication needs to be dispersed into intracellular and interstitial fluids after it is directly administered or absorbed and goes into systemic circulation. Once a medication enters the bloodstream, it is dispersed to … Read more