Biphasic liquid dosage forms Biphasic liquid dosage forms such as suspensions and emulsions, are pharmaceutical preparations that consist of two distinct, immiscible phases. These two phases can be different according to their composition, density, and solubility. biphasic liquids are of two types, such as suspensions and emulsions, consisting two immiscible phases. In this article we … Read more

Monophasic Liquids

Monophasic liquids Monophasic liquids in pharmacy are pharmaceutical formulations that consist of a single, homogenous phase. They are typically comprised of a solvent, one or more dissolved active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), and various excipients. These liquids represent a true solution, which is a clear, homogeneous mixture prepared by dissolving a solid, liquid, or gas in … Read more

Liquid Dosage Forms

Liquid dosage forms Liquid dosage forms are pharmaceutical preparations in a liquid state that are administered orally, topically, or by injection. They contain a mixture of active drug components and non-drug components (excipients) dissolved or suspended in a suitable solvent or mixtures of solvents. They are designed to provide the maximum therapeutic response in a … Read more

Powders (BP103T)

Introduction In pharmaceutics, a powder is defined as a dry, solid substance composed of finely divided drugs, with or without excipients, intended for internal or external use. It is a solid substance in a finely divided state. Powders represent one of the oldest and most conventional dosage forms. They were originally found to be a … Read more

Pharmaceutical Calculations

Introduction Pharmaceutical calculations serve as the backbone of pharmacy practice. Which ensures precise medication dosing, compounding and preparation. From converting units of weight and volume to calculating complex solutions and formulations, pharmaceutical calculations are essential for pharmacist. There are two-unit systems of weights and measures in pharmacy, one is imperial and another is metric. In … Read more

History of Pharmacy Profession in India in Relation to Pharmacy Education

Introduction In India the pharmacy education was started in 1842 in Goa by Portuguese as a certificate course and this is the first step towards pharmacy profession in India. Formal training of the compounds was started in 1881 in Bengal. The university level program of pharmacy is started in 1937 at Banaras Hindu University. After … Read more

Introduction to Pharmacopoeia

Introduction Pharmacopoeia is a book containing directions for the identification and evaluation of medicines, published by the authority of a government or a medical or pharmaceutical society. In a broader sense it is a reference book for pharmaceutical drug specifications. The word pharmacopoeia is derived from Greek language, pharmakon means drug and poieo means I … Read more

Buffered Isotonic Solutions

Buffered isotonic solutions Tonicity is a measure of effective osmolarity or osmolality in biological cell. The solutions having same osmotic pressure is known as isotonic solutions. Pharmaceutical solutions pass through delicate membranes of body; hence their osmotic pressure is to be adjusted with body fluids. Isotonic solutions cause no swelling or contraction of tissues when … Read more

Poison and Antidotes

Introduction Poisons are substances that, when ingested, inhaled, or absorbed, can cause harm to the body. They may be accidental, occupational, suicidal, or criminal in nature. Common causes of poisoning include heavy metals, drug overdose, and exposure to toxic chemicals. Notable types include heavy metal poisoning, cyanide poisoning, and snake venom. Antidotes are substances that … Read more


Haematinics Haematinics are essential nutrients required by the bone marrow for blood cell formation (haematopoiesis). These nutrients play a crucial role in maintaining healthy red blood cells. Haematinics are used in treatment of various types of anaemia. The main haematinics include iron, folic acid, and vitamin B12. Additionally, substances like copper and pyridoxine are required … Read more