B Pharm First Semester Pharmaceutical Analysis (BP102T) Notes

B Pharm First Semester Pharmaceutical Analysis (BP102T) Notes

Welcome to the first semester of B Pharmacy! Our “Pharmaceutical Analysis (BP102T) Notes” are here to help you get started with your studies. These notes cover all the important topics you’ll need to know, from the basics to more advanced. Click on the links for each unit below to find easy-to-understand articles that will support your learning journey.

Scope: This course deals with the fundamentals of analytical chemistry and principles of electrochemical analysis of drugs

Objectives: Upon completion of the course student shall be able to

  • Understand the principles of volumetric and electro chemical analysis
  • Carryout various volumetric and electrochemical titrations
  • Develop analytical skills


Definition and scope

Different techniques of analysis

Methods of expressing concentration

Primary and secondary standards

Preparation and standardization of various molar and normal solutions

Oxalic acid, sodium hydroxide, hydrochloric acid, sodium thiosulphate, sulphuric acid, potassium permanganate and ceric ammonium sulphate


Sources of errors, types of errors, methods of minimizing errors, accuracy, precision and significant figures


Acid base titration

Theories of acid base indicators, classification of acid base titrations and theory involved in titrations of strong, weak, and very weak acids and bases, neutralization curve

Non aqueous titration

Solvents, acidimetry and alkalimetry titration and estimation of Sodium benzoate and Ephedrine HCl


Precipitation titrations

Mohr’s method, Volhard’s, Modified Volhard’s, Fajans method, estimation of sodium chloride

Complexometric titration

Classification, metal ion indicators, masking and demasking reagents, estimation of Magnesium sulphate, and calcium gluconate


Principle and steps involved in gravimetric analysis. Purity of the precipitate: co-precipitation and post precipitation, Estimation of barium sulphate.

Diazotization titration

Basic Principles, methods and application of diazotization titration


Redox titrations

Concepts of oxidation and reduction

Types of redox titrations (Principles and applications): Cerimetry, Iodimetry, Iodometry, Bromatometry, Dichrometry, Titration with potassium iodate


Electrochemical methods of analysis

Conductometry– Introduction, Conductivity cell, Conductometric titrations, applications.

Potentiometry – Electrochemical cell, construction and working of reference (Standard hydrogen, silver chloride electrode and calomel electrode) and indicator electrodes (metal electrodes and glass electrode), methods to determine end point of potentiometric titration and applications.

Polarography – Principle, Ilkovic equation, construction and working of dropping mercury electrode and rotating platinum electrode, applications

As you wrap up the first semester, we hope our “Pharmaceutical Analysis (BP102T) Notes” have been a valuable part of your study routine. Remember, understanding pharmaceutics is key to your success in pharmacy, and these notes are just the beginning. If you have questions or want to share your thoughts, please leave a comment below.

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